A network mask helps you know which portion of the address identifies the network and which portion of the address identifies the node. Class A, B, and C networks have default masks, also known as natural masks, as shown here:
Class A: 255.0.0.0 Class B: 255.255.0.0 Class C: 255.255.255.0
An IP address on a Class A network that has not been subnetted would have an address/mask pair similar to: 184.108.40.206 255.0.0.0. In order to see how the mask helps you identify the network and node parts of the address, convert the address and mask to binary numbers.
220.127.116.11 = 00001000.00010100.00001111.00000001 255.0.0.0 = 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000
Once you have the address and the mask represented in binary, then identification of the network and host ID is easier. Any address bits which have corresponding mask bits set to 1 represent the network ID. Any address bits that have corresponding mask bits set to 0 represent the node ID.
18.104.22.168 = 00001000.00010100.00001111.00000001 255.0.0.0 = 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000 ----------------------------------- net id | host id netid = 00001000 = 8 hostid = 00010100.00001111.00000001 = 20.15.1
A subnet mask is what tells the computer what part of the IP address is the network and what part is for the host computers on that network.
Subnetting is a process of breaking large network in small networks known as subnets. Subnetting happens when we extend default boundary of subnet mask. Basically we borrow host bits to create networks. Let’s take a example
Being a network administrator you are asked to create two networks, each will host 30 systems.Single class C IP range can fulfill this requirement, still you have to purchase 2 class C IP range, one for each network. Single class C range provides 256 total addresses and we need only 30 addresses, this will waste 226 addresses. These unused addresses would make additional route advertisements slowing down the network.With subnetting you only need to purchase single range of class C. You can configure router to take first 26 bits instead of default 24 bits as network bits. In this case we would extend default boundary of subnet mask and borrow 2 host bits to create networks. By taking two bits from the host range and counting them as network bits, we can create two new subnets, and assign hosts them. As long as the two new network bits match in the address, they belong to the same network. You can change either of the two bits, and you would be in a new subnet.
Advantage of Subnetting
- Subnetting breaks large network in smaller networks and smaller networks are easier to manage.
- Subnetting reduces network traffic by removing collision and broadcast traffic, that overall improve performance.
- Subnetting allows you to apply network security polices at the interconnection between subnets.
- Subnetting allows you to save money by reducing requirement for IP range.
CIDR [ Classless Inter Domain Routing]:CIDR is a slash notation of subnet mask. CIDR tells us number of on bits in a network address.
- Class A has default subnet mask 255.0.0.0. that means first octet of the subnet mask has all on bits. In slash notation it would be written as /8, means address has 8 bits on.
- Class B has default subnet mask 255.255.0.0. that means first two octets of the subnet mask have all on bits. In slash notation it would be written as /16, means address has 16 bits on.
- Class C has default subnet mask 255.255.255.0. that means first three octets of the subnet mask have all on bits. In slash notation it would be written as /24, means address has 24 bits on.